Aflatoxin. Aflatoxins (AFs) are a class of mycotoxins produced mainly by the fungal . Definition. Aflatoxins are hepatotoxic mycotoxins (mold toxins) produced by. Aflatoxin definition, any of various related mycotoxins produced by a species of Aspergillus, commonly A. flavus, found as a contaminant in moldy grains and. Define aflatoxin. aflatoxin synonyms, aflatoxin pronunciation, aflatoxin translation, English dictionary definition of aflatoxin. n. Any of a group of toxic compounds.
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The expression of aflatoxin-related diseases is aflatoxin definition by factors such as species, age, nutrition, sex, and the possibility of concurrent exposure to other toxins.
Aflatoxin - definition of aflatoxin by The Free Dictionary
The main target organ in mammals is the liver, aflatoxin definition aflatoxicosis primarily is a hepatic disease. Conditions increasing the likelihood of aflatoxicosis in humans include limited availability of food, environmental conditions that favour mould growth on foodstuffs, and lack of regulatory systems for aflatoxin monitoring and control.
Symptomatic and supportive care tailored to the severity of the liver disease may include intravenous fluids with dextrose, active vitamin K, B vitamins, and a restricted, but high-quality protein diet with adequate carbohydrate content.
Detection in humans[ edit ] There are two principal techniques that have been used most often aflatoxin definition detect levels of aflatoxin in humans.
The first method is measuring the AFB1- guanine adduct in the urine of subjects. The presence of this breakdown product indicates exposure to aflatoxin B1 during the past 24 hours. This technique measures only recent exposure, however.
Due to the half-life of this aflatoxin definition, the level of AFB1-guanine measured may vary from day to day, based on diet, it is not ideal for assessing long-term exposure. Another technique that has been used is a measurement of the AFB1- albumin adduct level in the blood serum.
Aflatoxin M1 is present in the fermentation broth of Aspergillus parasiticus, but it and aflatoxin M2 are also produced when an infected liver aflatoxin definition aflatoxin B1 and B2.
Aflatoxin B1 and B2, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. The presence of those molds does aflatoxin definition always aflatoxin definition that harmful levels of aflatoxin are present, but does indicate a significant risk.
The molds can colonize and contaminate food before harvest or during storage, especially following prolonged exposure to a high-humidity environment, or to stressful conditions such as drought. The native habitat of Aspergillus is in soil, decaying vegetation, hayand grains undergoing microbiological deterioration, but it invades all types of organic substrates whenever conditions are favorable for its growth.
Aflatoxins have been isolated from all major cereal crops, and from sources as diverse as peanut butter and cannabis. The staple commodities regularly contaminated with aflatoxins include cassava, chilies, corn, cotton seed, millet, peanuts, rice, sorghum, sunflower seeds, tree nuts, wheat, and a variety of spices intended for human or animal consumption.
Aflatoxin transformation products are sometimes found in eggs, milk products, and meat when animals are fed contaminated grains. Adult humans have a high tolerance for aflatoxin exposure and rarely succumb to acute aflatoxicosis,  but children are particularly affected, and their exposure can lead to stunted growth and delayed development, in addition to all the symptoms mentioned below.
This aflatoxin definition thought to cause aflatoxin definition in the p53 gene, an important gene in preventing cell cycle progression when there are DNA mutations, or signaling apoptosis programmed cell death. Food and Drug Administration FDA tests foods that may contain aflatoxins, such as peanuts and peanut butter.
- Aflatoxins - National Cancer Institute
- Definition of aflatoxin - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute
- Aflatoxin | Definition of Aflatoxin by Merriam-Webster
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To date, no outbreak of human illness caused by aflatoxins has been reported in the United States, but aflatoxin definition outbreaks have occurred in some developing countries. Selected References Food and Drug Administration.
Food and Drug Administration, Last accessed December aflatoxin definition, International Agency for Research on Cancer. World Health Organization, National Center for Environmental Health.