While masculinity and femininity are traditional terms to identify gendered characteristics, values, meanings, and cultural expectations, there are many more. Hofstede Masculinity / Femininity Traits. Hofstede: Masculinity / Femininity. This dimension focuses on how extent to which a society stress achievement or nurture. Masculinity is seen to be the trait which emphasizes ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles. In a seminal study on masculinity and femininity, Deaux and Lewis investigated the perceived relationship between gender and.


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Connell, an Australian sociologist, one of researchers of masculinity, made a conclusion on the femininity and masculinity between various types of masculinity that occur in reality and femininity and masculinity the identification of a hegemonic masculinity stereotype among them [5].

Kon considers hegemonic masculinity not a property of a certain male, but a specified sociocultural normative canon, to which men and boys are geared [3].

Femininity/Masculinity |

This normative structure gives the location on the top of the gender hierarchy to a boy or a man who supposedly possesses these properties and shares these values.

Along with the hegemonic masculinity, R. Natural masculinity is life in compliance with a male habitus, in which different restrictions imposed by hegemonic masculinity are lifted [1]. This implies recognition of a right to emotionality, a right of a male to be unconfident, worried about the future, and an opportunity of a different attitude to family and children.

Men possessing this type have femininity and masculinity characteristics that coincide in content and behavior with female patterns of behavior. Inversion masculinity is life in compliance with a habitus of self doubt, low degree of personal autonomy, lack of independence in views and behavior, femininity and masculinity.

Other types of masculinity femininity and masculinity be also distinguished on the basis of such factor as consumption, not power.

Let us note that male and female consumption is also one of gender aspects, but it is discussed not as frequent as power, roles, statuses, etc.

Masculinity and Femininity

Such models of masculinity as metrosexual and ubersexual can be distinguished in terms of consumption. However, instead of using only these two items, we constructed a femininity and masculinity that can be tested empirically with regard to its reliability and validity.

Scale construction We introduce the TMF scale, an instrument for measuring gender-role self-concept. Appendix A1 in Supplementary Material shows all items, both English translations femininity and masculinity original German wordings.

Hofstede Masculinity / Femininity Traits

Each item initially included in scale construction was selected based on theoretical considerations, as outlined femininity and masculinity the following. Namely, gender-role adoption, gender-role preference, and gender-role identity.

Constantinople defines gender-role adoption as the actual manifestation i. According to Kagangender-role identity refers to a comparison of gender-related social norms and the gender-related characteristics of the individual e.

Hence, for gender-role identity social comparisons as well as references to different gender-related aspects are emphasized e.

Following the former approach, we use TMF as a femininity and masculinity point.


Based on dimensions identified as important in previous research, the TMF encompasses gender-role identity with regard to physical appearance, behavior, interests, and attitudes and beliefs e.

As mentioned, physical appearance was shown to play a particularly large role in implicating other components of gender stereotypes Deaux and Lewis, Athenstaedt advocated the inclusion of gender-stereotypical behaviors in addition to traits, so this domain was included in the TMF as well.

Additionally, his study showed that instrumental and expressive traits were outperformed by these gender-related interests in predicting femininity and masculinity gender.

Consequently, we included gender-related interests in the TMF femininity and masculinity of femininity and masculinity traits. Finally, regarding attitudes and beliefs, gender differences have often been found, for example, with regard to attitudes toward minority groups e.


We therefore also included self-assessment of attitudes and beliefs in the TMF. One advantage of the TMF is that each of the mentioned scale dimensions is measured on a global level and not by various specific indicator items. Different from the instruments described above, which infer masculinity-femininity from the degree of femininity and masculinity of specific traits and behaviors, the TMF aims to femininity and masculinity assess masculinity-femininity.

We consider it an asset of the scale that it is thus independent of specific stereotype content regarding masculinity and femininity that depend on culture and time e. The TMF consists of six items only: All of them femininity and masculinity high face validity.

Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles

Each item is to be femininity and masculinity rated in terms of femininity and masculinity. A 7-point-scale is used to gauge the extent to which the participant feels feminine or masculine, how feminine or masculine she or he ideally would like to be, and how feminine femininity and masculinity masculine her or his appearance, interests, attitudes, and behavior would traditionally be seen.

Construct validity is tested in the studies described below.

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